Closing the Gap

Tshilidzi Marwala

Age 16 +
05 October 2020


Closing the Gap is an accessible overview of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) and the impact it is set to have on various sectors in South Africa and Africa. It explores the previous industrial revolutions that have led up to this point and outlines what South Africa’s position has been through each one.

With a focus on artificial intelligence as a core concept in understanding the 4IR, this book uses familiar concepts to explain artificial intelligence, how it works and how it can be used in banking, mining, medicine and many other fields.

Written from an African perspective, Closing the Gap addresses the challenges and fears around the 4IR by pointing to the opportunities presented by new technologies and outlining some of the challenges and successes to date.

Contents overview


1 Understanding the fourth industrial revolution

2 Automation

3 South Africa’s 4IR strategy

Part 1: Industry

Part 2: Data

Part 3: Business

Part 4: Society